The Importance of Mushrooms to Our Daily Nutrients.
A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or its food source. Mushrooms might be the only kind of fungus that is favorable for human beings. In ancient times, mushrooms are believed that they can provide strength to warriors in battle, they are also perceived as a kind of "panacea" in ancient China. Mushrooms present in different times of civilizations in human history, they were born before on earth before any existed human being.
Nowadays, mushrooms are widely applied for culinary purposes. People turn mushrooms into sauces, eat mushrooms to absorb important nutrients including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. They are incredibly low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium, which is a good choice for people who try to eat green or on a diet. Mushrooms contain a variety of nutrients. Among them, the protein content is twice that of cabbage and potatoes, and four times that of tomatoes and carrots. Mushrooms also contain valuable fat. Lecithin can prevent the accumulation of cholesterol in the human body. The sugar, glucose, and mold sugar contained in mushrooms can greatly improve their nutrition. Mushrooms are also rich in vitamin e, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, selenium, and potassium, manganese, and magnesium. Mushrooms are anti-cancer, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood fat, anti-inflammatory, and regulating body circulation and appetizing effect. Mushroom is rich in vitamin C, so it has detoxification function as well, and that is also why the mushroom was widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine.
Beneficial Outcomes of Edible Mushrooms
The nutritional value of mushrooms: 1. It can reduce the incidence of the tumor because mushrooms are rich in polysaccharide chemicals, which have obvious anti-cancer properties. Appropriate consumption of mushrooms and polysaccharide compounds can reduce the intake of polysaccharide compounds, the efficacy of cancer incidence; 2. It is capable of nourishing the spleen, because, from the perspective of the TCM diet, mushrooms are flat and sweet, which enter the spleen and stomach meridians. For people with weak spleen and stomach, loss of appetite, and indigestion, if they eat mushrooms properly, they can benefit from these workplaces inside of our body; 3. It is said that mushrooms can moisten the lungs and resolve phlegm. For people with cough, sputum expectoration, and inversion caused by dryness of the lungs, mushrooms can moisturize the lungs and resolve phlegm and relieve symptoms if they eat properly. To be noticed, all of the above beneficial outcomes only describe the supportive and preventive effect on diseases mentioned earlier, mushrooms can not straightly cure the diseases by all means.
A List of The Most Common Mushrooms in Our Daily Life
1. Button Mushrooms
Button Mushroom is the most popular mushroom variety grown and consumed the world over. In India, its production earlier was limited to the winter season, but with technology development, these are produced almost throughout the year in small, medium, and large farms, adopting different levels of technology. The species being grown in most farms in the white button mushroom (Agaricus) belonging to class basidiomycetes and the family Agaricaceae.
Mushrooms are highly proteinaceous and are usually used as food. The white button mushroom is sold as fresh mushroom or is canned and made into soups, sauces, and other food products in the USA and most European countries. Protein in mushrooms has 60-70 % digestibility and contains all the essential amino acids. It has medicinal attributes as well. A high amount of retene is presented in the button mushroom which is supposed to have an antagonistic effect on some forms of tumors.
2. Cremini Mushrooms
A variety of mushrooms that is similar in size and shape to a white button mushroom, but has brown skin and creamy tan flesh. This mushroom is a young portobello that is harvested before it matures and becomes large with a flattened cap. When served, it provides a somewhat earthy or smokey flavor, which is much more pronounced than white button mushrooms. Cremini mushrooms can be stored in the refrigerator at 34ºF to 38ºF, loosely wrapped in paper towels or their original container or a paper bag, but should never be stored in plastic. Also known as crimini, this variety of mushrooms can be kept for 5 to 7 days.
The difference between these popular varieties of mushrooms is just age. The white button mushrooms, those very familiar kitchen staples, are simply the youngest variety. They have been cultivated too for that white color and soft texture. In the wild, these mushrooms are usually browner. The cremini mushroom, then, is just in between these two varieties. It's a moderately mature version of the white button mushroom, which is why it has a similar flavor. It's younger than the portobello but still related, which is why these are sometimes sold as "baby bella" or "baby portobello" mushrooms.
People enjoy and consume cremini mushrooms a lot and their slightly more mature state means that they have a browner color, firmer texture, and better flavor than the younger white mushrooms. Nowadays, people use them frequently in stews and soups, since we find that they hold up better in liquid.
3. Portobello Mushrooms
Portobello mushrooms, also known as portobella mushrooms and crimini mushrooms, or the scientific name Agaricus bisporus, are one of the most widely distributed mushrooms, distributed on every continent and in almost all climates. These mushrooms are easy to identify because of their large size, at least 4 inches (about 10 cm). They also have a deep musty smell that makes people think they have just been picked from the forest.
The portobello mushroom is the most mature mushroom here, it's just an overgrown white mushroom! They are left to grow for longer until they have spread out into that delicious meaty cap.
When buying portobello mushrooms for family growing or cooking, it is important to avoid mushrooms that looking broken or scratched because those can lead to loss of flavor. They are particularly sensitive to air oxidation, so it is suggested that they should be wrapped in paper towels or placed in their original containers. It is possible to refrigerate portobello mushrooms, but the longer the storage time, the easier it is for the mushrooms to lose their flavor. It is best to eat them within five days of purchase and avoid washing the portobello mushrooms before cooking, as this will also lead to loss of flavor. Tap them to remove excess sand or debris, or a light sweep with a cooking brush is sufficient.
4. Oyster Mushrooms
The size and shape of oyster mushrooms are named for the similarity of aquatic organisms. These mushrooms grow on a wooden substrate and have a sweet taste. They can be grown indoors or outdoors, depending on the temperature. Oyster mushrooms come in many colors, including black, gray, pearly, pink, white, or yellow.
For shiitake and oyster mushrooms, growers soak the logs in unchlorinated water for 24 hours, then occasionally keep the mist moist. Within a few weeks, mushrooms may be harvested. Logs can be placed horizontally or upright, as they may be only 12 inches in length. As long as the spores remain viable, growers can expect to harvest some mushrooms every few months for several years.
5. Chanterelle Mushrooms
This kind of chanterelle mushrooms usually grows in some mountains and dense jungles, because they can grow better in this environment, which is why many people didn't know it. Its name is quite loud, as some people know but they haven't seen it. The chanterelle mushrooms look like a small horn, and their color is yellow. When it gets old, the color becomes yellower, which is a kind of orange. Its general size is like a The cup is so big. Its size is not particularly large, but if many are together, it will appear very large.
This kind of chanterelle mushrooms are usually found in autumn, and it only can be found in dense jungles, that is why it has special requirements for living conditions, but now, some people will artificially grow chanterelle mushrooms at the farm. Although it may be planted not as big as the wild chanterelles we see in the jungles, the manual planted ones can also be eaten, and the price of this chanterelle is relatively more expensive. If it will be artificially planted, this is also a way to feed yourself with self-planted chanterelle mushrooms.
How to Grow Mushrooms in Your Backyard?
Since mushrooms grow in a close environment, usually we need to maintain a certain humidity and temperature for them, and they will give birth to plentiful small mushrooms by themselves. Moreover, the growth speed is relatively fast, and one crop can be harvested in more than ten days.
One of the easiest ways to grow mushrooms is to purchase several fungus sticks, we can soak them for about a day, let them fully absorb the water, and then put them in a cool place for maintenance, because mushrooms like a humid environment, we need to spray water on it every day to keep it wet so that if the temperature is right, the purchased fungus stick will grow a stubble of mushrooms in about seven to ten days. We can just pick it off and stir-fry.
The other way to grow mushrooms at home is that we buy a bag of mushroom bags, and then we need to place them in a damp and dark place. At the same time, we need to supply water to ensure a moist living environment. Of course, the temperature must be controlled, about 20 -30℃ is the most suitable temperature, then add some plant fertilizers such as corn cobs into the mushroom bag, and finally, let it grow.
When we harvest the mushrooms, please try to pick it off while it's fresh, never wait until it's too mature because when the mushrooms are over mature, the buds will start to show up. These buds have a certain effect on the human respiratory system. Therefore, pick it as soon as the mushrooms are mature and fresh.
Common Problems We Might Have When Growing Mushrooms
1. No buds: Firstly, the selected species and the designated are not suitable, use low-temperature species in high-temperature seasons, or use high-temperature species in low-temperature seasons; Secondly, lack of temperature difference stimulation; The water content of the medium material is low and the medium material's surface is dry; The temperature is too high and the air is dry and white cotton (aerial hypha) appears on the surface of the medium material, which affects the formation of mushroom buds; Nextly, the hypha is aging, forming a thicker membrane; Also, poor ventilation, high carbon dioxide concentration, insufficient light will delay the vegetative growth of mycelium.
2. Failure of growth: Continuous high temperature causes the young mushrooms to dry up when heated; The water content of the medium material is low, and the air humidity is low; The carbon dioxide concentration is high, and the young mushrooms fail to grow due to hypoxia. The solution to this problem is to prevent high temperatures during the fruiting period. Once the temperature is too high, ventilate and cool down in time; Increase water spray to increase the air humidity. It is better to spray mist water better than spray young mushrooms directly with water; Ventilate the mushroom shed regularly. Replenish fresh air and remove harmful gases such as carbon dioxide in time.
3. Rotted Mushrooms: Excessive spraying of water and poor ventilation will cause water on the surface of the mushroom body, causing edema, softening, and rot. Solution: Reduce water spraying and improve ventilation. Generally, ventilate immediately after spraying water so that water on the surface of the mushroom body can be released in time.
4. The long and slender caps of the stalks are not differentiated: Insufficient light, which is more common in basements, and mushrooms in the air defense tunnel; The high carbon dioxide concentration promotes the rapid growth of the stalks, and the cap formation will be difficult. The solution to this problem is to increase light and add workers' lights; Ventilate and supplement air.
5. Mushroom formation in the medium: The bag opening is too late; The material surface at both ends is dry, which is not conducive to the formation of mushroom buds; The bag is packed loosely, resulting in a large gap between the medium material and the material wall. Solution: Mushrooms inside the bag are mostly deformed, which will consume nutrients and affect yield. A diaphragm is used to compress the material and exhaust the air so that the nutrition is concentrated, and the two ends of the bag are used for fruiting.
6. Malformed mushrooms (knob, cauliflower, blue or blue side mushrooms, and horn mushrooms, etc.): The temperature is too low and the time is too long, causing the growth of cells in the inner and outer layers of the cap to become unbalanced, and tumors appear shaped or granular protrusions; Insufficient ventilation in the mushroom shed, resulting in excessive air temperature or increased carbon dioxide concentration, forming horn mushrooms; The increase in the temperature of the generator in the shed causes the accumulation of carbon monoxide and other harmful gases, which stimulates the growth and variation of the mushroom body and causes a discoloration reaction. Solution: Attention should be paid to ventilation when it is cold and warm in winter. It is not advisable to directly grow the furnace in the mushroom shed. Firewalls or fire channels should be built; The environment should be well ventilated with sufficient light.
Tools You May Need to Grow Mushrooms
With just a few tools, mushroom spawn plugs, and the proper growing medium, you are on your way to getting that fresh mushrooms to the kitchen in a minute. Some multiple ways and mediums can grow various mushrooms, except for simply growing mushrooms from purchasing a fungus bag or fungus sticks, we can also grow mushrooms on a stump or a wood log. If you want a big area of mushroom to grow in your backyard but do not want them all over the yard, it is strongly recommended to use a wooden garden bed for mushrooms to grow. 3 tier garden bed will allow you to grow multiple species of mushrooms with different adaptive methods.